Coin-Based Apports: A Methodological Approach To Study Non-Mediumistic Recurrent Physical Anomalies

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Ramsés D’León1,2, Alex A. Álvarez1,2 & Alfredo Silva1,2 
1Unidad Parapsicológica de Investigación, Difusión y Enseñanza, Mexico City, Mexico 
2Centro de Investigación de la Sintergia y la Consciencia, Mexico City, Mexico


Introduction: Large-scale visible psi phenomena are difficult to encounter, and even harder to replicate in controlled environments. Exceptional experiences that include the anomalous physical and observable perturbation of objects are found all along the history of parapsychology, particularly in physical mediumship studies, and related to some outstanding individuals.  

Furthermore, there has been enough scrutinously well-designed studies regarding gifted individuals and unique locations since the begging of the twentieth century to obtain some understanding of the phenomenology of large-scale psi. Thanks to previous research, parapsychology has obtained a set of criteria that may point towards the origin and classification of some anomalous physical phenomena like macro-psychokinesis, hauntings, recurrent spontaneous psychokinesis (poltergeist), and apparitions. 

But even the most psi enthusiastic researcher would tread carefully attributing scientific validity to the most fringe physical phenomena as levitation, materialization, and teleportation. The case we are studying belongs to this last category. 

Approach: In parapsychology the term ‘apport’ is used to describe the paranormal appearance or transference of objects to other locations (Cardeña, Palmer, & Marcusson-Clavertz, 2015), and presumable instances of this phenomena has been documented mainly in physical mediumship cases. Nonetheless, most of these studies were registered during the Spiritualism apogee (1850 and 1920), investigating some of the most famous mediums of their age: Indridi Indridasson (Haraldsson & Gissurarson, 2015), Franek Kluski (Weaver, 2015), Eusapia Palladino, Daniel Home, the Fox Sisters, (Irwin, & Watt, 2014), among others. 

Apports have been scarce and difficult to record in the last century; nonetheless, it has happened in the presence of sitter groups like the Felix Experimental Group (Braude, 2016), and the SORRAT (Grattan-Guinness, 1999). Individuals unrelated to mediumship have also been studied regarding their mediumistic-like phenomena, like the table-tipping of Ariel Farias (Gimeno, 2015; Gimeno & Burgo, 2017), the thoughtography of Ted Serios, and the apports of Amyr Amiden (Krippner et al., 1996; Krippner, 2011) and Katie “The Gold Leaf Lady” (Braude, 2007). But alas, well-documented apport cases in the last 100 years may be counted on the fingers of one hand. 

The case at hand develops in Mexico City, surrounding a 55-year-old married man whom we will refer as “HM”, unaffiliated to mediumship, and with presumably recurrent apports since 2016. The apported objects are usually well-preserved coins from Mexico and other countries, but medals, dead flowers, and even apples have been reported to appear as well. After the onset of the phenomena, he has emotionally journeyed through fear, curiosity, and finally acceptance. He also has physically traveled to China, India, Turkey, and Japan, studying acupuncture and distant healing, in his search for answers. He even has taken parapsychological courses at the Rhine Education Center and the Koestler Parapsychology Unit. Finally, he has mentioned on multiple occasions that he has no interest in economic gains or fame; and we believe he is truly driven by scientific inquiry. 

Proposal: Based on previous research, we have proceeded with a “cooperative inquiry group” paradigm, including HM in the design, operationalization, and definition of the variables of the study. 

The Phase 1 of this investigation will involve both qualitative and quantitative measurements including: 

  • Installation of 6 HD cameras with infrared (15 mts.) and audio recordings in his home 
  • Video analysis of the cameras’ recordings and supplementary video-graphic material provided by HM  
  • Unstructured interviews with HM, his family, and employees regarding cultural milieu, family history 
  • Psychometric tests 
  • Phenomenology of each apport; including object’s description, date, time, mood, location, and subjective perception of the experience 

Phase 2 will probably include the installation and analysis of other sensors like wall thermometers, gaussmeters, T-RNGs, the addition of physiological sensors, and the physical and geological analysis of the apported objects. 

Conclusion: The validity and classification of the case is difficult to evaluate at this point. The description of the events is coherent with some of the criteria in the phenomenology of poltergeist cases, but there’s also elements of spiritual emergency. Furthermore, there are financial and spatial limitations due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and as an exploratory research, the experimental approach for the next phases may change during the evolution of the study. Nevertheless, the full cooperation of HM, the presumably recurrency, and the field implications of the case are enough to be worthy of research. 

Braude, S. (2007). The Gold Leaf Lady: And Other Parapsychological Investigations. United States: University of Chicago Press. 

Braude, S. (2016). Follow-up investigation of the Felix Circle. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 30 (1): 27–55. 

Cardeña, E., Palmer, J., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2015). Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21th Century, (Google Books ed.). North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. 

Gimeno, J. (2015). Shortage of Rabbits or Insufficient Traps? Table-Turning and the Discovery of a Presumably PK-Gifted Person in Argentina. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 29 (4): 585–600. 

Gimeno, J. & Burgo, D. (2017). Laboratory Research on a Presumably PK-Gifted Subject. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 31 (2): 159-186. 

Grattan-Guinness, I. (1999). Real Communication: Report on a SORRAT Letter-writing Experiment. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 13(2): 231–256. 

Haraldsson, E. & Gissurarson, L. R. (2015). Indridi Indridason the Icelandic physical medium. Hove, UK: White Crow Books. 

Irwin, H. & Watt, C. (2014). An Introduction to Parapsychology (Google Books, 5th ed.). North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. 

Krippner, S., Winkler, M., Amiden, A., Crema, R., Kelson, R., Lal Arora, H. & Weil, P. (1996). Physiological and geomagnetic correlates of apparent anomalous phenomena observed in the presence of a Brazilian ‘sensitive’. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 10 (2), 281-298.  

Krippner, S. (2011). The Parapsychological Odyssey of Stanley Krippner. NeuroQuantology, 9 (2): 322–332. 

Weaver, Z. (2015). Other Realities? The Enigma of Franek Kluski’s Mediumship. Hove, UK: White Crow Books. 


Ramses D'Leon
Ramses D’Leon

My principal interests in the field are psychokinesis and physiological anticipation, though I’m also engaged in reaching the field to students and researchers in another disciplines. • Chief Researcher at Unidad Parapsicológica de Investigación, Difusión y Enseñanza (UPIDE) [since 2015] • Fellow Researcher at Centro de Investigación de la Sintergia y la Consciencia (CISC) [since 2020] • Associate Member of the Parapsychological Association [since 2018]

Coin-Based Apports: A Methodological Approach To Study Non-Mediumistic Recurrent Physical Anomalies


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