Scroll down to view this video
Julia Mossbridge, PhD1,2,3,4 [DOI: 0000-0002-3915-8433], Mark Boccuzzi5, Dean Radin2,3
1 TILT: The Institute for Love and Time, Sebastopol, CA 95472, USA
2 Institute of Noetic Sciences, Petaluma, CA 94952, USA
3 California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
4 University of San Diego, San Diego, CA 92110, USA
5 The Windbridge Institute, LLC, Tucson, AZ 85712, USA
Introduction: We tested psi performance in four online forced-choice tasks designed to assess precognition and micro-psychokinesis on a random number generator. We used a trait-analysis approach to examine the relationship between psi performance and various demographic, personality, and target factors. The trait-analysis approach is not new to psi and has been used over the past four decades with varying results (e.g., Barušs & Mossbridge 2017; Bierman & Scholte 2002; Braud 2002; Cardeña & Krippner 2000; Hitchman, Roe & Sherwood 2012; Honorton, Ferrari & Bem 1998; Jahn et al. 2017; Krippner, Saunders, Morgan & Quan 2019; Lawrence 1993; Lobach 2009; Mossbridge 2017; Mossbridge, Tressoldi & Utts 2012; Palmer 1971; Palmer and Carpenter 1998; Radin 1989; Radin & Lobach 2007; Storm & Tressoldi 2017; Walsh & Moddel 2007; Wittmann et al. in press; Schwartz 2007; Zdrenka and Wilson 2017). Drawing from this work, we expected that psi performance would be revealed as a small effect and that gender, psi belief, and target richness or target interestingness would correlate with performance. We also expected that effects would sometimes be in the direction opposite of conscious intention. Traditionally called psi missing, we call such effects “expectation-opposing.”
Methods: As computational power and the availability of participants have increased with the advent of online experiments, so has our capacity to examine what factors might influence performance on different tasks. The performance we describe in this presentation was obtained from two psi-testing platforms, one an iOS smartphone app and the other a website. The smartphone app contained three “games,” which designed to measure micro-psychokinesis, conscious precognition, and unconscious precognition. The website presented a fourth task designed to measure conscious precognition performance in the form of a precognitive remote viewing task. We used parametric null hypothesis significance tests, including multiple linear regression and t-tests, to compare performance on these tasks against chance and also to determine how the factors we examined were related to task performance. These factors were self-reported age, gender, psi belief, psi confidence, Big-5 personality type, and target interestingness. Where clear effects were found, we pre-registered confirmatory analyses for a portion of the data set that had not previously been examined.
Results: Overall, our hypotheses were confirmed, and we also discovered additional effects. In this talk, we will present new analyses not discussed in a previous (2019) talk. Analyses of data from 5,908 individual logins and 1,001,427 trials obtained between 2018 and 2020 revealed a rich complexity of performance patterns, indicating that psi performance was influenced by virtually all of the factors we explored. Specifically, our key findings were: 1) significant expectation-opposing effects, with a confirmatory pre-registered replication of an expectation-opposing effect on a micro-pk task, 2) significant relationships between performance and psi belief, 3) significant relationships between performance on three of the four tasks with gender, 4) apparent strategy differences between men and women, where men likely used a micro-pk-focused strategy for multiple tasks while women use different strategies that depend on the task, 5) significant relationship between timing and target interestingness with precognitive remote viewing performance, with a confirmatory pre-registered replication of the interestingness effect.
Discussion: We will discuss these results and their interpretations, then describe our recommendations for future attempts to better understand performance on online forced-choice psi tasks, a recommendation strategy for which we created the acronym SEARCH: Small effects, Early and exploratory, Accrue data, Recognize diversity in approach, Characterize don’t impose, and Hone in on big results.
Barušs, I. and Mossbridge, J.A. (2016). Transcendent mind: Rethinking the science of consciousness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.
Bierman, D., and Scholte, H. (2002). A fMRI brain imaging study of presentiment. Journal of the International Society of Life Information Sciences 20(2), 380–388.
Braud, W. G. (2002). Psi-favorable conditions. In V. G. Rammohan (Ed.), New frontiers of human science: A festschrift for K. Ramakrishna (pp. 95–118). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J. & Krippner, S. (2000). Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.
Hitchman, G. A., Roe, C. A., & Sherwood, S. J. (2012). A reexamination of nonintentional precognition with openness to experience, creativity, psi beliefs, and luck beliefs as predictors of success. Journal of Parapsychology, 76(1), 109-145.
Honorton, C., Ferrari, D. G. & Bem, D. J. (1998). Extraversion and ESP performance: A meta-analysis and a new confirmation. Journal of Parapsychology 62(3), 255-276.
Jahn, R. G., Dunne, B. J., Nelson, R. D., Dobyns, Y. H., & Bradish, G. J. (1997). Correlations of random binary sequences with pre-stated operator intention: A review of a 12-year program. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11(3), 345– 367.
Krippner, S., Saunders, D. T., Morgan, A., & Quan, A. (2019). Remote viewing of concealed target pictures under light and dark conditions. Explore, 15(1), 27-37.
Lawrence, T. R. (1993). Gathering in the sheep and goats … a meta-analysis of forced-choice sheep-goat ESP studies, 1947–1993. Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 36th Annual Convention, 75–86.
Lobach, E. (2009). Presentiment research: Past, present and future. In C.A. Roe, L. Coly, & W. Kramer (Eds) Utrecht II: Charting the future of Parapsychology (pp. 22-45). New York, NY: Parapsychology Foundation.
Mossbridge, J. (2017). Examining the nature of retrocausal effects in biology and psychology. In AIP Conference Proceedings 1(1) p. 030004.
Mossbridge, J., Tressoldi, P. E., & Utts, J. (2012). Predictive physiological anticipation preceding seemingly unpredictable stimuli: a meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 390.
Palmer, J. (1971). Scoring in ESP tests as a function of ESP. Part 1: The sheep-goat effect. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 65, 373–408.
Palmer, J., & Carpenter, J.C. (1998). Comments on the extraversion -ESP meta-analysis by Honorton, Ferrari and Bem, Journal of Parapsychology 62(3), 277-282.
Radin, D. I. (1989). Searching for” signatures” in anomalous human-machine interaction data: A neural network approach. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3(2), 185-200.
Radin, D., and Lobach, E. (2007). Toward understanding the placebo effect: investigating a possible retrocausal factor. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13, 733–739.
Schwartz, S. A. (2007). Opening to the infinite: The art and science of nonlocal awareness. Buda, TX: Nemoseen Media.
Storm, L., & Tressoldi, P. E. (2017). Gathering in more sheep and goats: A meta-analysis of forced-choice sheep-goat ESP studies, 1994-2015. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 81(2), 79-107.
Walsh, K., & Moddel, G. (2007). Effect of belief on psi performance on a card guessing task. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21(3), 501-510.
Wittmann M., Scheck F., Feldmann J., Glaesmann A., Mossbridge J., Bem D, (in press). The German version of a retroactive priming task shows mixed effects. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice.
Zdrenka, M., & Wilson, M. S. (2017). Individual difference correlates of psi performance in forced-choice precognition experiments: A meta-analysis (1945-2016). Journal of Parapsychology, 81(1), 9-32.
Current academic focus on an interdisciplinary exploration of the physics and psychology of time and travel in time (mental, informational, and physical components) and how they relate to the mechanics of unconditional love and hope. Recipient of major award (2019) from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to create hope technology. Recipient of 2014 Charles Honorton Integrative Contributions Award from the Parapsychology Association. Co-author of Transcendent Mind (APA 2017).