W.J. Ross Dunseath, PhD
University of Virginia, Division of Perceptual Studies
Charlottesville, VA, USA
Introduction: Neuroimaging studies of psi processes such as psychokinesis (PK) are a central interest at the Ray Westphal Neuroimaging Laboratory (RWNL, Division of Perceptual Studies, University of Virginia, USA). Obtaining neurological and physiological correlates of success in psi tasks is desirable for showing psi is meaningfully related to other measurable phenomena rather than just a free-floating anomaly. Physiological correlates can also provide information about unconscious psi processes, enable mapping of psi-related information flows through the body and brain, and resolve ambiguities regarding the source of observed psi effects (the so-called “experimenter effect”).
PK presents an opportunity to acquire physical measurements of anomalous processes localized in time and space using sensors with real-time continuous outputs. For typical neuroimaging protocols requiring repeated relatively short “trials” interspersed with rest periods, a useable PK sensor must provide a reasonable signal to noise ratio, not interfere with the physiological instrumentation, and present an attractive well-defined target for the PK agent with the potential for immediate feedback. This study is an evaluation of a multivariate PK sensor designed for use in neuroimaging studies, run with groups and individuals attempting to influence the sensor in a timed protocol.
Methods: A sensor system consisting of multiple channels in an electromagnetically-shielded enclosure connected to a laptop computer was presented to MC Squared program participants at the Monroe Institute in Faber, Virginia. Each sensor provided three outputs regarding localized air ionization events from cosmic ray sources. Participants were provided with a basic description of the target and asked to make the score shown on the real time laptop display go higher. Attempts at PK were timed at 120 seconds, with 135 second baseline periods in between. Both groups and individuals were offered opportunities to engage the sensor. One hundred and twelve participants from ten MC Squared programs participated in the study over a period of three years.
Results: Sensor outputs were significantly different (higher) during PK attempts vs. baselines. Simple scoring of sensor outputs was based on event counts (effect size 0.07, p=0.02) that are relatively easy to detect and discriminate from artifact with automated scoring. However, each event also has two analog measures, magnitude and velocity, and when these are combined in Manova the results are considerably more significant, p = 0.009. Additional information from the sensor is available in the timing of events in clusters. Cluster counts were much lower than event counts, and all baseline clusters were composed of two events only. In contrast, PK clusters were not only more numerous but also had multiple events. Weighted cluster scores, taking into account multiple events, were 70 for PK vs. 32 for baseline.
Discussion: This was an evaluation of a novel PK sensor for potential use in neuroimaging PK studies. The sensor detects air ionization events primarily from Muons (similar to electrons) arriving at the surface of the earth from cosmic ray sources. Previous studies using Geiger counters (Radin, 1993) and other types of radiation detectors (Yan et al., 2002) have shown apparent human intention effects regarding high energy particles. This study appears to demonstrate human intention is capable of directing the trajectories of Muons. Of additional interest is the non-significant response from a Geiger counter located in the sensor enclosure directly above the target sensors. Participants were not informed of this device when the target sensors were described.
Radin, D. I. (1993). Environmental modulation and statistical equilibrium in mind-matter interaction. Subtle Energies,4(1), 1-30.
Yan, X., Lu, F., Jiang, H., Wu, X., Cao, W., Xia, Z., Shen, H., Wang, J., Dao, M., Lin, H., & Zhu, R. (2002). Certain physical manifestation and effects of external Qi of Yan Yin Life Science Technology. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 16, 381-411.
Ross Dunseath is an electrical engineer who was first introduced to the wild world of psychical research as a student at Duke University, followed by a somewhat normal career engaged in the design of biomedical instrumentation especially for use in harsh environments such as MRI scanners. He joined the Division of Perceptual Studies at University of Virginia in 2011 as co-director of the Westphal Neuroimaging Lab and also is currently Research Coordinator at The Monroe Institute.
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