Scroll down to view this video
Hideyuki Kokubo1, Martina Blašková2, Dominika Tumová2, & Rudolf Blaško2
1 Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan
2 University of Žilina, Žilina, Slovakia
Introduction: Many studies on paranormal experiences suggest that human beings have a common ability to experience paranormal experiences and that those experiences are based on different biological mechanisms. It is necessary to clarify which kinds of experiences are more susceptible to which environmental factors. For example, since the beginning of the 21st century, new discoveries have been made about the relationship between organisms and geomagnetism, such as that the magnetic vision of European robins is disturbed by electromagnetic noise emitted by home appliances in urban environments, and that humans also have magnetite-type magnetic sensors. Geomagnetism should be considered as one of the environmental factors related to paranormal experiences.
In the 1980-1990s in Japan, frequency of paranormal experiences was surveyed for students to collaborate McClenon’s survey (1993) for students in the USA and China. The present authors made similar surveys against Japanese and Slovak university students in the 2010s, and compared their data with the previous data. They tried to explain the difference of frequency of experiences by geomagnetism and urban electromagnetic noise level. Moreover, using the same way, they re-analyzed data of the European Human Value Study shown in Haraldsson & Houtkooper (1991).
Methods: The questionnaire sheet had 2-point scale items for: déjà vu, sleep paralysis, presentiment, telepathy, clairvoyance, OBE, 6th-sense belief, and signs of ghosts. Surveys were conducted during 2013-2019 for 1527 Japanese students of 3 universities, and conducted in 2019 for 443 Slovak students of the University of Žilina. Comparison data were obtained from Hagio (1990), Becker (1990), and McClenon (1993). To allow comparison, clairvoyance, presentiment, and telepathy in the authors’ survey were compiled into the ESP category.
By groups, total magnetic force F of geomagnetism at the targeted place was calculated by a model magnetic field calculation using IGRF-13. Additionally, the authors assumed that the electromagnetic noise level in the urban environment could be expressed by the power supply voltage of a common household.
Results: [Students] ESP experience rate of Slovak students was 81.9% which was larger than the rate obtained in the other countries (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1 ‘Yes’ answer rate for students to have experienced the six categories
There was no significant correlation between F and paranormal experiences, and also between latitude north and paranormal experiences. However, there were positive significant correlations between ESP and the power supply voltage (r = 0.97, p = 0.0004, two-tails, n = 7), and between the signs of ghosts and the power supply voltage (r = 0.88, p = 0.009, two-tails, n = 7) (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2 Correlation of ESP or signs of ghosts with power supply voltage for students in Japan, USA, China, and Slovakia
[European Human Value Survey (Adults)] The correlation between clairvoyance and latitude north was r = -0.74 (p = 0.002, two-tails, n = 15) (Fig. 3). The correlation between clairvoyance and F was not significant (r = -0.22, p = 0.434, two-tails, n = 15). While the correlation coefficients of telepathy and the contact with the dead were -0.33 ≤ r ≤ 0.12 (not significant) against both F or latitude north.
In relationship to the power supply voltage, telepathy was moderately negatively correlated at r = -0.55 (p = 0.041, two-tails, n = 15), while both clairvoyance and the contact with the dead were not correlated at r = -0.31 (p = 0.28, two-tails, n = 15).
Fig. 3 Relationship between latitude north and clairvoyance in the European Human Values Survey (adults)
Discussion and Conclusion: The possibility was suggested that the power supply voltage was a strong environmental factor causing the ESP experience, especially presentiment. Re-analyzing data of the European Human Values Survey (1981-1984), the authors found that latitude (a parameter of geomagnetism) had an effect on clairvoyance. It was considered that the responsiveness to electromagnetic phenomena differed depending on the type of paranormal experiences.
Becker, C. (1990). Questionnaire survey on anomalous experiences. Proceedings of 23rd Annual Convention of JSPP, 8-9.
Hagio, S. (1990). Sociological survey on psi experiences II. Proceedings of 23rd Annual Convention of JSPP, 6-7.
Haraldsson, E. & Houtkooper, J. M. (1991). Psychic experiences in the Multinational Human Values Study: Who reports them? JASPR, 85, 145-165.
IAGA Division V-MOD: 13th Generation IGRF – Released December 2019. (Accessed on Feb. 19, 2021) https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/index.html
McClenon, J. (1993). Surveys of Anomalous Experience in Chinese, Japanese, and American Samples. Sociology of Religion, 54(3), 295-302.