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Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
Introduction: Growing bodies of experiments have revealed that the spontaneous biophoton emission of human shows patterns of coherence in both spatial presentation and temporal phase-variation. The spatial coherence pattern refers to correlations of the intensity changes of biophoton emission of human between distant anatomic locations (Van Wijk, Van Wijk et al. 2014). The temporal coherence pattern refers to synchronous or sequential occurrences of changes of biophoton emission of human at various anatomical locations when influenced by a systematic exogeneous factor (Kobayashi, Kikuchi et al. 2009). These weak albeit undeniable patterns of spatial and temporal coherences (to the least correlations) are different from, and thus inexplicable by, the coherence of localized photon-counting of Poisson-statistics as stipulated by Popp et al. according to the decay of induced change of biophoton emission in organisms when stressed (Piao 2020b).
Hypothesis: Humans when alive, unlike other organic forms, present and are governed by consciousness which may be inseparable from networked neuronal activities. Theories have considered biophotons to function as the means of inter-neuronal communication via physical channels like microtubes (Grass, Klima et al. 2004), and to even facilitate non-local communicating faculty (Tessaro, Dotta et al. 2019). We hypothesized (Piao 2021) that the metabolic activities responsible for photo-genesis sourcing biophoton emission could have been modulated by autonomic neuronal control. We further hypothesize that, automatic neuronal control of the metabolic activities governing photo-genesis of biophoton emission likely will lead to spontaneous biophoton emissions to present patterns of coherence in the spatial distribution, the temporal variation, and even the spectral composition.
Methods: We assumed a connection between an autonomic coherent state of the lumped neuronal networking and a chemical potential of metabolic aspect hypothesized to regulate photo-genesis processes sourcing biophoton emission. The connection between the autonomic coherent state of neuronal networking and the site-specific or volume-confined or spatially distributed photo-genesis is rendered by way of two hypothetical transfer factors, one dictating physiological-photogenic transfer and the other determining pathological-photogenic transfer, both of which presumably must involve neuronal signaling. The physiological-photogenic and pathological-photogenic transfer factors are amenable to being implemented with spatial, temporal, or even spectral dependencies. These dependencies can be incorporated into the hypothetical photo-genesis process considered to source biophoton emission that diffusely propagates in tissue and reaches the surface for photo-electronic acquisition.
Results: The spatially correlated variations of surface biophoton emission may be interpreted phenomenologically by way of spatially distributed photo-genetic transfer of a centralized or common autonomic control with which a degree of neuronal coherence will need to associate. The temporally correlated variations of surface biophoton emission that usually occurs at extremely long scales of time can be intuitively interpretated by assuming phase-shifted or kinetically retarded photo-genic transfers, which are also projected to be governed by a centralized or common autonomic modulation with which a degree of neuronal coherence may synchronize. Similarly, spectral shift of the biophoton emission indicating spectral correlations can be implicated by incorporating a spectral dependency of the photo-genic transfer, which may correspond to a disparity in the ability to invoke the same degree of autonomic neuronal coherence for a spectral outcome.
Discussion: This work affords novel insights to autonomic neuromodulation that may underlie the spatial and temporal patterns of coherence of human biophoton emission. Such insights may be particularly useful to developing and improving instrument capabilities for investigating altered or alternative states of consciousness such as meditation by cross-examining with neurophysiology (Rubik B 2017).
Grass, F., H. Klima and S. Kasper (2004). “Biophotons, microtubules and CNS, is our brain a “holographic computer”?” Med Hypotheses 62(2): 169-172.
Kobayashi, M., D. Kikuchi and H. Okamura (2009). “Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm.” PLoS One 4(7): e6256.
Piao, D. (2020b). “On the stress-induced photon emission from organism: II, how will the stress-transfer kinetics affect the photo-genesis?” SN Applied Sciences 2: 1556.
Piao, D. (2021). “Phenomenological interpretations of some somatic temproal and spatial patterns of biophoton emission in humans.” J. Scientific Exploration 35(2): 345-382.
Rubik B, a. J. H. (2017). “Effects of intention, energy healing, and mind-body states on biophoton emission.” Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 13(2): 227-247.
Tessaro, L. W. E., B. T. Dotta and M. A. Persinger (2019). “Bacterial biophotons as non-local information carriers: Species-specific spectral characteristics of a stress response.” Microbiologyopen 8(6): e00761.
Van Wijk, R., E. P. Van Wijk, H. A. van Wietmarschen and J. van der Greef (2014). “Towards whole-body ultra-weak photon counting and imaging with a focus on human beings: a review.” J Photochem Photobiol B 139: 39-46.
Daqing Piao received BS degree in 1990 in physics from Tsinghua University and earned MS and PHD degrees in 2001 and 2003, respectively, both in biomedical engineering within Electrical and Computer Engineering program from University of Connecticut. He is now a Professor in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oklahoma State University. His current experimental interests include biophotonics. He also has strong interest on understanding the mind-matter-interaction aspect of psi. Presentation: Spatial & temporal coherences of biophoton emission: what if they have connection to consciousness?